IFA


 

Ogun or Ogoun Yoruba Ògún Portuguese Ogum GU also spelled Oggun or Ogou known as Ogún or Ogum in Latin America is a spirit that appears in several African religions He attempted to seize the throne after the demise of Obatala who reigned twice, before and after Oduduwa but was ousted by Obamakin Obalufon Ogbogbdonrin and sent on an exile an event which serves as the core of the Olojo Festival Ogun was a warrior and a powerful spirit of metal work as well as of rum and rum making He is also known as the god of Iron and is present in Yoruba religion Haitian Voodoo and West

African Vodun
Ògún
Ògún Lákáayé
Warriors, soldiers blacksmiths metal workers, craftsmen
Member of Orisha
View of Ogoun
Other namesOggun Ogou Ògún or OgúmVenerated in Yoruba religion Edo religion Dahomey mythology Vodun Santería Umbanda Candomblé Quimbanda Haitian Vodou Louisiana Voodoo Folk CatholicismRegionNigeria Benin Latin America Haiti United States Ethnic group Yoruba people Edo people Fon people
Yoruba religion
Statue of Ogun Sacred Grove Of Oshun Osogbo Nigeria
In Yoruba religions Ogun is a primordial Orisha in Yoruba Land In some traditions he is said to have cleared a path for the others arise to enter Earth using a metal ax and with the assistance of a dog To commemorate this one of his praise names or reiki is Using Imoleor the first of the primordial Orisha to come to Earth He is the god of war and metals [Stone Masons] 


In his earthly life Ogun is said to be the first king of Ife When some of his subjects failed to show respect Ogun killed them and ultimately himself with his own sword He disappeared into the earth at a place called Ire Ekiti with the promise to help those who call on his name His followers believe him to have so ill sun to have disappeared into the earth's surface instead of dying Throughout his earthly life he is thought to have fought for the people of Ire thus is known also as owner
He is now celebrated in Ogun Ekiti Oyo and Ondo States

Followers
Ogun is the traditional deity of warriors hunters blacksmiths technologists and drivers in the Yoruba region Followers of traditional Yoruba religion can swear to tell the truth in court by kissing a piece of iron in the name of Ogun Drivers carry an amulet of Ogun to ward off traffic accidents


Symbols
The primary symbols of Ogun are Iron the dog and the palm frond They symbolize Ogun's role in transformation mediation and function Iron is the primary emblem of Ogun Ogun altars and ceremonies display and use iron objects both in Yoruba areas and across the African diaspora Followers of Ogun wear chains of iron implements Ogun festivals feature the display of knives guns blacksmith implements scissors wrenches and other iron implements from daily life
Sacrifice


Meats are sacrifices for Ogun Dogs are the traditional companions of hunters but Ogun's personality is also seen as doglike aggressive able to face danger and straightforward Other sacrificial animals associated with Ogun are the spitting cobra blacksnake its behavior is aggressive and fearless Hunters and blacksmiths avoid eating or witnessing the mating of blacksnakes Other important sacrificial offerings to Ogun are the Clarias submarginatus a species of catfish alligator pepper kola nuts palm wine and red palm oil small rats roosters salt snails tortoise water and yams Clyne Many of these sacrificial offerings were carried into

New World traditions
Oríkì is a Yoruba cultural phenomenon that comes in the form of praise poetry praising either a person òrìṣà deity or town based on their achievements Ogun worshippers are known to sing Ogun's oríkì and this specific part insinuates that Ògún is in seven parts
Ògún méje logun mi
Ògún alára ni n gb’aja
Ògún onire a gb’àgbò
Ògún Ikọla a gb'agbín
Ògún gbengbena oje ìgí nìí mu
Ògún Ila a gb’esun iṣu
Ògún acquiring a gb’awo ago
Ògún elémono ẹran ahùn ni jẹ
mákindé ti dogun lẹyin odi
Bi o BA gba Tapa a gb’Aboki
A gba Ukuuku a gba Kèmbèrí

Translation
My Ògún manifest in seven different ways
Ogun of the town of Ilara accepts a dog atonement
Ogun of the town of Ire accepts a ram atonement
Ogun of the town of Ikole accepts a snail atonement
Ogun of Gbenagena drinks tree saps for atonement
Ogun of the town of Ila accepts yam seeds atonement
Ogun of the Akirin people accepts ram fur atonement
Ogun of the Elemono people eats tortoise meat for atonement
The brave that wage foreign wars
He will consume either Nupe or Hausa
He consumes foreign people He will consume the Kanuri too

Dahomey religion
In Dahomey religion go is the burden of war and patron deity of smiths and craftsmen He was sent to earth to make it a nice place for people to live and he has not yet finished this task

Candomblé
Candomblé altar to Ogun Brazil
The organ is known in the Afro Braziliantradition of Candomblé as Ogum Ketu Ijexa and Efon nations or GU Jejenation Ogum is synchronized with Saint George notably in Rio de Janeiroand the state of Rio Grande do Sul Candomblé tradition in Northeast Brazil especially in Bahia associates Ogum with Saint Sebastian or Saint Anthony
Characteristics
Consecrated day Wednesday
Metal iron
Element earth
Color red black, green Rio de Janeiro blue Bahia marine blue
Food feijoada xinxim yams
Archetype impetuous authoritarian cautious hardworking suspicious and a bit selfish
Symbols sword broadsword iron chain
Individual devotees of Ogum in Brazil avoid certain foods These include goat cajá manga Spondias dulcet sugar, black beans yams and the manga Espada an elongated mango cultivar of Brazil in the Ketu nation yams and manga espada in the Ijexa nation and partridge in the Jeje nation
Ritual Sacrifice


Ogum As A Male Orisha Boró Only Eats Male Animals Ox Billy Goat Rooster Snake Typically A Red Snake Dog And Game Animals Are Sacrificed Orô On Festival Days Associated With Ogum In The Candomblé Tradition

Ritual Foods
Acaçá Is A Ritual Food Offered To All Gods In The Candomble Pantheon It Is Made Of A Paste Of Corn Mash Steamed In Banana Leaves A Variation Acaçá De Feijão Preto Substitutes Black Beans Phaseolus Vulgaris For Corn This Variation Is Only Offered To Ogum In The Casa Fanti Ashanti Temple In São Luís In The State Of Maranhão Feijoada A Stew Of Beans With Beef And Pork Is Also A Common Offering To Ogum

Santería And Palo
Ogun's Centrality To The Yoruba Religion Has Resulted In His Name Being Retained In Santería Religion As Well As The Orisa Religion Of Trinidad And Tobago In Santería Ogún Is Syncretized With Saint Peter Santiago Saint Paul And John The Baptist He Is The Deity Of War And Metals

Vodou
In Haitian Vodou Ogun Is Known As Ogou And Consists Of An Array Of Manifestations Most Carry The Aspect Of Iron Smithing And Tools From The Yoruba Tradition The Ogou Guard The Badji The Sacred Altar Of The Vodou Temple He Carries An Iron Saber And Wears A Red Sash Ogou Is Also The God Of Pioneering Intelligence Justice Medicine And Political Power These Are Associated With The Symbol Of The Tool That Can Advance Humans Mastery Over The Environment Ogou Feray Is The God Of War Other Manifestations Of Ogou Are Ogou Badagri Ogou Balenjo Ogou Batala And Ogou Je Wouj Ezili Dantor Is The Female

Counterpart To Ogou
Ogou Feray Is Syncretized With St James The Greater St Jacques Majeur In The Vodou Tradition He Is A Flower Spirit, And He Guides Vodou Followers Against Their Enemies He Is Symbolically Covered In Iron And May Not Be Harmed By His Enemies As In Africa His Symbol Is A Piece Of Iron A Machete Or A Knife As In Africa Ogou Is Revered Among Blacksmiths Many Of Whom Are Of Yoruba Origin He Is Also Noted To Like Women And Alcohol
In Vodou Ceremonies Followers Of Ogou Wear A Red Shirt Pants And Scarf A Follower Of Ogou In A Possession Trance Is Offered Haitian White Rum During The Ceremony In Some Ceremonies Rum Is Burned In A Container To Allow Ogou To Wash The Hands Of The Followers
Two Vodou Songs To Ogou As Recorded, And Translated By Michel S Laguerre

Fè Ogou Fè Ogou Fèray o
Fè Ogou Fè Ogou Fèray o
I am an iron
I am covered with iron
Fèrè Fèray tout ko Fèray sé kouto
Fèrè Fèray tout ko Fèray sé manchèt
The body of Ogou Fèray is covered with knives
The body of Fèray is covered with machetes

 

IN POPULAR CULTURE
In the story O compadre de Ogum by the classic of Brazilian literature Jorge Amado or the end part of the novel Shepherds of the Night Ogun is one of the title characters Ogun baptizes a blond blue eyed child whom the Negro has already recognized as his son
Also, there was a depiction of Ogun in the popular anime fire force Where the Ogun character had cornrows and was very strong in his use of fire to attack

 


Footnote
Léo Neto et al observed various kinds of animal used in sacrificial ritual in twelve Candomblé communities of Caruaru Pernambuco and Campina Grande Paraíba in the Northeastern Region of Brazil between August and June dogs were the only sacrificial animal offered to Ogun in both communities

 

 

 


Bibliography
Clyne Robert Marcel Ogun Worship in Idanre Iron and Identity in a Yoruba Town Ph.D thesis Yale University
References
a b c d Adeoye C L Ìgbàgbọ́ àti ẹ̀sìn Yorùba in Yoruba Ibadan Evans Bros Nigeria Publishers pp ISBN
a b c d Barnes, Sandra Africa's Ogun Old World and New Bloomington, IND Indiana University Press ISBN
a b c d Earhart, H Religious Traditions of the World a Journey through Africa Mesoamerica, North America Judaism Christianity, Islam Hinduism, Buddhism China and Japan San Francisco California HarperSanFrancisco ISBN
a b c Verger Pierre Notas sobre o culto aos orixás e voduns na Bahia de Todos os Santos no Brasil e na antiga costa dos escravos na África in Portuguese São Paulo EDUSP pp